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Abstract

  • Hattusa, the traditional capital of the Hittite Empire, was one of many largest and most influential cities within the historic world. It held important energy over the Anatolia area of Turkey and northern Syria.
  • The archeological website of Hattusa has been acknowledged as a UNESCO World Heritage website since 1986. It comprises historic temples, royal residences, and fortifications, providing a glimpse into the wealthy historical past of the Hittite Empire.
  • Along with Hattusa, there are different Hittite websites value exploring within the area, reminiscent of Yazilikaya, Alacahöyük, Kültepe, and Sapinuwa. These websites present additional perception into the huge extent and affect of the Hittite Empire.

Turkey boasts a very long history stretching to the very earliest times of permanent settlement in the region, such because the Neolithic site of Gobeki Tepe in eastern Turkey). Additionally it is dwelling to a number of the earliest recorded empires such because the Hittites. At present guests can discover Hattusa — the traditional capital of the Hittite Empire.

Turkey is full of ancient discoveries from long-forgotten empires and civilizations, such because the 100 burial mounds of the Lydian Kingdom in western Turkey. Hattusa is one such spotlight of the traditional Hittite Empire and is properly value visiting.

UPDATE: 2023/12/04 13:47 EST BY AARON SPRAY

Hattusa Is The Prime Hittite Archeological Web site Of A number of Websites

Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire and was as soon as one of many largest cities of the traditional world, however there are different wonderful Hittite websites to discover within the area. This text was up to date and expanded with extra details about different Hittite Archeological websites to discover round Hattusa.

The Significance & Historical past Of Hattusa & The Hittite Empire

Hattusa was one of many largest and most vital cities on the planet


An aerial view of the landscape of Hattusa, Hittite Empire
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An aerial view of the panorama of Hattusa, Hittite Empire

The Hittite Empire dates from the late Bronze Age (round 2,000 BC) and its former empire was the nice fortified metropolis of Hattusa. Hattusa wielded appreciable affect over the Anatolia area of Turkey and historic northern Syria.

At its peak, the Hittite kingdom stretched from the Aegean via Anatolia throughout northern Syria and to the Euphrates River.

  • Interval: Late Bronze Age (approx. 4,000 years in the past)
  • Standing: UNESCO Listed Since 1986

Hattusa has been UNESCO World Heritage Listed since 1986 and it’s value exploring for these with an curiosity in historic historical past. The archeological website preserves historic temples, royal residences, and fortifications). See the wealthy ornamentation of Hattusa’s historic Lions Gate and Royal Gate.

It’s thought that Hattusa might have had a inhabitants of round 40,000-50,000 inhabitants.

  • Peak Inhabitants: 40,000-50,000

The Hittites moved their capital to Hattusa within the first half of the 2nd millennium BC (it was destroyed circa 1700 BC however later rebuilt). After an interregnum, Hattusa remained the capital of the Hittite Empire till it fell within the twelfth century BC as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse.


Hattusa Ancient City Gates
Photograph by özhan Hazırlar on Pexels

Hattusa Historical Metropolis Gates

Hattusa was solely rediscovered in 1834. Whereas the Hittite Empire and civilization had been preserved in texts just like the Bible, students believed the Hittite Empire to have been a fable as there wasn’t any archeological proof. The invention of Hattusa modified every thing.

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The Historical Royal Clay Tablets, Partitions, & Different Archeological Discoveries At Hattusa

Hattusa has yielded a wealth of archeological discoveries from the Bronze Age providing a peek into historical past


Relief of the Twelve Gods in Yazilikaya Hattusa, ancient capital of the Hittite Civilization
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Aid of the Twelve Gods in Yazilikaya Hattusa, historic capital of the Hittite Civilization

Among the most vital finds embody the Bogazkoy Archive, an intensive royal archive of clay tablets. Historical clay tablets are sometimes a bit of boring to learn as they ceaselessly document the knowledge of historic accounting — who has paid what in tax and who’s owed what (accounting is, in spite of everything, the origin of writing).

However these clay tablets additionally document historic forgotten prophecies, peace treaties, authorized codes, contracts, official correspondence, and different literature of the time.

One of many tablets speaks of the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittites and Egyptians beneath Ramases II, who built the massive Abu Simbel Temples, in 1259 or 1258.

  • Clay Tables: Approx. 30,000

Archeologists have additionally found some giant sculptures round 3,000-4,000 years previous on the website. The traditional homes had been constructed out of timber and dust bricks and have lengthy since disappeared from the positioning.

The Hittite Empire existed because the age of horses and chariots had dawned within the area. The traditional metropolis was surrounded by an historic wall round 8 kilometers or 5 miles lengthy.

There are additionally the stays of different, older, partitions discovered via Hattusa. These partitions cut up the town into distinct districts and made the town very closely fortified.

  • Historical Wall: 5 miles or 8 kilometers lengthy
  • Towers: Over 100 Towers
  • Gateways: 5 Gateways (3 Richly Adorned)

Archaeologists are nonetheless working to excavate the traditional websites and be taught the secrets and techniques of the long-lost civilization. Who is aware of what secrets and techniques and surprises are simply ready to be found?

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What To Know About Visiting Hattusa In Turkey At present

Hattusa is without doubt one of the oldest archeological cities to see in Turkey at the moment

The Hattusa Archeological Site is positioned within the modern-day Turkish province of Corum within the heartland of the Anatolian area. The three key gates to go to are the Lions Gate, the Royal (or Kings) Gate, and the Sphinx Gate.

Go to the Higher Metropolis and see the longest recognized Hittite hieroglyphic inscription on the traditional partitions (a number of the historic partitions have been reconstructed).


Hattusa city walls reconstructed & Archeological Site
lumosajans / Shutterstock

Hattusa metropolis partitions reconstructed & Archeological Web site

  • Admission Charge: 50 TL ($2.00 USD)
  • Opening Hours: 8:30 am to 7:00 pm (final entry 6:30 pm)
  • Days Open: Every day

The higher-preserved temples are discovered within the Decrease Metropolis — together with the Grand Temple relationship from the thirteenth century BC.

Go north of Hattusa and see the traditional rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya, an historic open-air temple with two rooms hewn into the bed room. Right here guests can see a number of the most exceptional surviving examples of Hittite aid artwork with gods, goddesses, and the Nice King Tudhaliya IV.

Dimension Of The Hittite Empire & Different Archeological Websites To Go to

The Hittite Empire had many cities and there are extra Hittite points of interest close to Hattusa value visiting

The Hittite Empire was one of many biggest empires of its period. It dominated a lot of Central and Southern Anatolia and far of modern-day Syria. Regardless of that, it has confirmed troublesome to affiliate archeological websites with the Hittites with certainty and solely a handful of websites have been linked with them definitively.

The Hittites had been centered on Hattusa and Nesa, though Oxford Academic lists 48 key Hittite websites. 4 different key Hittite websites to discover embody Yazilikaya, Alacahöyü, Kültepe (aka Nesa), and Sapinuwa.

Yazilikaya: A Hittite Ceremonial Heart

Yazilikaya is an historic Hittite rock sanctuary positioned solely round a mile to the northeast of the traditional capital of Hattusa. Right here guests can uncover historic Hittle chambers hewn into the bedrock and see the place historic Hittite ceremonies as soon as passed off.

  • Yazilikaya is famous for having a number of the greatest samples of Hittite aid artwork recognized at the moment.

Alacahöyük: The First Hittite Capital

Alacahöyük was as soon as a thriving Hattian cultural heart in the course of the Bronze Age. In a while, it was taken over by the Hittite. It then turned the primary capital of the Hittite Empire earlier than it was moved to Hattusa. Guests can see the spectacular ruins nonetheless there at the moment.


Example of ancient Cuneiform tablet
Photograph by Bilge Şeyma Kütükoğlu on Pexels

Instance of historic Cuneiform pill

Kültepe or Neša: A Former Hittite Capital

Kültepe is positioned in central Turkey close to the trendy metropolis of Kayseri (not too removed from Cappadocia). It was an historic buying and selling settlement and can be related to historic Assyria. The town traded gold, silver, copper, and different assets. It was known as Neša by the Hittites and was the capital for a time.

Sapinuwa: A Gold Mine For Cuneiform Tablets

Sapinuwa was an vital Hittite army and non secular heart (positioned between Hattusa and Alacahoyuk). It was positioned alongside historic commerce routes and a few Hittite kings had their royal residences there for some time. The positioning was solely recognized in 1989 and a few 4,000 historic tablets and pill fragments have been discovered there.

There’s a lot to see in and round Hattusa — this area is greater than value a go to!

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